Studies are being conducted to understand how modification of DNA causes disease. This work entails identifying DNA modifications, determining how they form, and their relationship to a disease state. Research is also in progress to develop antisense and triplex DNA-based agents to treat gene-based diseases such as HIV. To conduct these research activities, a variety of tools are employed including organic synthesis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, computational chemistry, and molecular biology techniques. The application of these techniques has led to the design of novel and unique solutions to current research problems.